Lambs Wool Elastic, soft, resilient wool fibers obtained from lambs when they are seven or eight months old- the first or virgin clipping from the animal. The lofty stock is used in better grades of fabrics.
Lampas A term describing a jacquard fabric, a term interchangeable with a brocade or damask. Can be two-tone or multicolor, the difference being that the design has a greater raised effect on the face of the fabric.
Leather The skin of an animal tanned or otherwise dressed for use. Full Top Grain, indicating the very best hides available on the world market today. Only the finest hides, those which do not require sanding or buffing to remove defects or imperfections, can be classified as Full Top Grain. These premium hides in their natural, unadulterated state retain the superior characteristics of suppleness and tuftability found only in genuine Full Top Grain Leather.
Linen Flax is the plant, linen is the product from flax. The term, linen, cannot be used except for natural fiber flax.
Lisere A jacquard fabric usually made with a taffeta or faille ground. The design is created by colored warp threads brought up on the face of the fabric, leaving loose yarns on the back. These threads are sometimes clipped.
Llama Members of this family group have four distinct types-llama, alpaca,guanaco, and vicuna-and two hybrid types-huarizo (llama father and alpaca mother) and paco-llama or misti (alpaca father and llama mother). "Llamaland" is in Peru and Bolivia. Not found north of the equator, the animals live in the Andes Mountains and fleeces are obtained every two years, weight is about five pounds and staple fiber is about eleven inches. Fibers run from brown to black to white in color. The fabrics made of the fiber include sportswear, dress goods, women's coatings, suitings, and in the men's wear field, slip-on topcoats, year round coatings, heavy coatings. Much used as a blending fiber with wool and worsted.
Loom A machine on which the weaving is done. The warp (lengthwise) threads are secured on the loom through the eyes of heddles and attached to the loom beam at the front of the loom. The filling (crosswise) thread darts between the warp threads as they are alternately lifted and lowered, sometimes carried by a shuttle, sometimes propelled by air pressure, or other methods in shuttleless looms.
a. The Plain Weave consists of one thread over and one thread under. This type is found in sheeting.
b. The Twill Weave has each warp thread passing over two or more filling threads, with the interlacing advancing one thread on successive warps. This type, with its "diagonal line", is found in denims.
c. The Satin Weave has few interlacings widely but regularly spaced, resulting in a lustrous "right" side and dull back. This type is found in dress goods.
d. Jacquard Design - A woven design made with the aid of a jacquard head (this constitutes a jacquard loom) and may vary from simple, self-colored, spot effects to elaborate, multicolored, all over effects.
Looms (Major Motions or Actions) These are shedding, picking, and beating-up. Minor motions on looms are the take-up, let-off, and pattern. The first three motions are linked together as follows:
a.Shedding Motion: The separating of the warp ends into an upper and lower system of threads to permit the shuttle to pass through the space that has been formed. The warp ends are drawn through heddle eyes in the correct manner, and in the turning-over of the crank shaft of the loom, a shed is formed with each turn.
b. Picking Motion: The actual passing of the shuttle through the shed of the loom. The shuttle passes over the lowered ends of the shed and under its raised ends. The shed permits the shuttle to pass through it and thereby makes it possible for the shuttle to deposit the pick or filling yarn.
c. Beating-Up: The actual beating into place of the loose pick that was placed in the shed of the loom in the picking motion. Beating-up makes each and every deposited yarn a component part of the woven cloth. The reed beats this pick into place with each consecutive turn of the crankshaft.